At WWDC 2023 earlier this year, Apple announced it completed transition from Intel to 64-bit ARM processors (Apple Silicon): no new machines with Intel processors will be offered. This was three years after the transition has been announced at WWDC 2020. The work on R support for the platform started the same year and was part of the next R release, R 4.1. See this blog post for details on initial experiments with R on the platform.
The situation is very different on Windows. Windows 10 released in 2017 already supported 64-bit ARM processors, but it didn’t have an emulator to run 64-bit Intel binaries (only 32-bit), so many applications wouldn’t run. The hardware availability was limited at the time: there were only tablet (or tablet-like) options, but no fast laptops nor workstations to use the system. Today, Windows 11 is available and supports emulation of 64-bit Intel applications. Apple M2 and M1 machines can be used (with virtualization) to run Windows and somewhat ironically even Microsoft recommends it as one option. Mac users would probably rather use a macOS version of R, but the hardware availability of ARM machines available to run Windows fully natively has also been improving. So, will R work on Windows on 64-bit ARM?
The executive summary is: while there is currently no released stable Fortran compiler for the platform, LLVM/flang is already good enough to build at least base R and recommended packages. Only a reasonable amount of changes is needed for R on Windows to build using LLVM. Initial experiments suggest that extending Rtools43 to support LLVM/aarch64 would be possible. More details follow in this post.
Hardware for testing
The experiments have been performed on a MacBook Pro machine with Apple M1 Pro processor, running a virtual machine (QEMU/UTM) with Windows 11. The performance of running checks and compilation was acceptable.
R 4.3.1 built for 64-bit Intel machines runs on Windows 11 on 64-bit ARM, but it doesn’t pass the installation tests (Testing an Installation in R Admin manual) due to numerical differences. Additional testing and analysis would be needed to conclude whether these differences, most likely caused by the emulator, are still acceptable or not.
Windows on 64-bit ARM also allows hybrid emulation when, in a single address space, part of the code is built for 64-bit Intel (x86_64), but another part can be built to run natively on 64-bit ARM but using proprietary Microsoft ABI called arm64ec. Arm64ec is based on x86_64 calling convention and is also used by Windows itself. One can then combine both “true” 64-bit ARM binary (called arm64 or aarch64, the latter used in this text) with an arm64ec binary in a single arm64x binary.
The experiments reported here targeted aarch64 only, so all code to run in a single address space (R, R packages and external libraries) has to be built for aarch64. Aarch64 code is expected to have best performance and lowest power consumption on the platform.
R needs a C and Fortran compiler
R needs a C and Fortran compiler to build. R for Windows has been traditionally built using GNU Compiler Collection (GCC): gcc for C and gfortran for Fortran code. While GCC supports aarch64 on Linux without problems, and there is at least a development branch of GCC with support for aarch64 on macOS, there is no such GCC support readily available for Windows. A recent effort to add this support may be followed on GCC bugzilla.
LLVM on the other hand has supported Windows/aarch64 (via MinGW-W64) for many years, at least from 2018, see this thread for details. However, while R could use clang (the C compiler) from LLVM, there was no Fortran 90 compiler option available in LLVM (for any platform) nor any other free Fortran 90 compiler for Windows/aarch64.
Only earlier this year the flang compiler (sometimes referred to as flang-new, so not the classic flang compiler) in LLVM became usable to the point that it could build R including base and recommended packages on Linux. The testing and additional support for new flang on Unix platforms in R has been done by Brian Ripley, who has been also testing CRAN packages and working with their authors on necessary adjustments to support flang on Unix.
The new flang progress finally made it possible to actually try out also building R for Windows/aarch64.
Most of R is being tested by different compilers (including LLVM clang and recently the new flang) and on different platforms (including aarch64), so most of the code did not require any changes. However, the Windows-specific code in R has been recently only used with GCC, binutils and Intel processors and these were sometimes assumed unconditionally. The required changes were as follows.
Several bits of Intel assembly code were replaced by aarch64 assembly, by C code or removed (entering the debugger, resetting FPU state, swapping bytes).
C code had to be modernized to make LLVM clang 16 happy. Name conflicts
between GraphApp symbols and system headers were resolved. K&R notation in
some old incorporated code had to be replaced. Function pointer types were
extended to list also argument types. Functions without a prototype had to
get one, e.g. explicitly add
void as argument when the function takes no
dllexport attributes had to be updated to prevent
cases when adding the attribute in a re-declaration, which is treated as
dllimport is not needed at all so can be omitted, and
is not used in R because exports from DLLs are handled via definition files.
A call to
isnan on an integer had to be avoided, because it caused a
crash, but it shouldn’t be done anyway and normally causes a warning. Clang
identifies itself as rather old GCC, so in one case old unused code got
unintentionally used, and hence proper conditioning was added for clang.
File version meta-data specifying the version of R had to be updated because
llvm-rc, the resource compiler, requires that each element of
FILEVERSION fits into 16 bits. The current SVN release of R no longer fits
into 16 bits.
Support for Windows/aarch64 had to be added to functions detecting the
current platform and the compiler in use, e.g. to appear in
sessionInfo(). Mapping between selected programming language functions
and low-level runtime symbol names had to be provided for this platform
(sotools, these are used in package checks).
Windows make files got initial support for LLVM compilers and tools
WIN variable now can be empty to denote an unknown/unspecified
architecture (64/32 denoted 64-bit and 32-bit Intel) for which packages will
be compiled from source by default and sub-architectures will not be used.
With this setting, e.g.
Rterm.exe will be in
bin instead of say
bin/x64. This is similar to how R works by default on Unix.
These changes are experimental and, if needed, may be amended or removed.
As of Rtools42, Rtools is a set of Msys2 build tools, MXE-built compiler toolchain+libraries and several standalone tools. The Msys2 build tools and the standalone tools for x86_64 can be used on Windows 11/aarch64 via emulation. The compiler toolchain and libraries have to be different.
MXE is a cross-compiling environment. The compiler toolchain as well as the libraries are built on Linux/x86_64. Thanks to that, existing infrastructure, including hardware, can be used for the building and experimentation.
While MXE does not support LLVM yet (see a bug report where this can be tracked), MXE has been reported to have been used with slightly customized llvm-mingw toolchain from Martin Storsjo in the scope of libvips project. Llvm-mingw, however, does not support flang.
Rtools43, specifically its fork of MXE, has been hence extended to support LLVM 16.0.5 including flang as an MXE plugin, re-using llvm-mingw scripts and their libvips modifications.
Unlike llvm-mingw, only a single LLVM target is supported to match how Rtools are used within the R project and to fit into the MXE target directory layout. So, using the same code base, one can build a bundle (of compiler toolchain and libraries) for x86_64 and a completely separate bundle for aarch64.
When building the toolchain, first LLVM cross-compilers are built on Linux/x86_64. They run on Linux/x86_64 and produce code to run on Windows/aarch64. Using these cross-compilers, LLVM native compilers are built which run on Windows/aarch64 and produce code to run on Windows/aarch64. Building the native flang compiler required an extra bootstrapping step to work-around issues in cross-compiling MLIR (it helped to take inspiration from how Julia cross-compiles MLIR).
Almost all but not all libraries present in Rtools43 for x86_64 have already
been compiled for aarch64, but many more were compiled than necessary to
build base R and recommended packages. Experimental builds are
available in three
tarballs, similarly to the builds targeting the Intel platform:
llvm16_ucrt3_base_aarch64_*.tar.zst is the base toolchain and libraries
needed to build base R and recommended packages,
llvm16_ucrt3_full_aarch64_*.tar.zst is a super-set containing more
llvm16_ucrt3_cross_aarch64_*.tar.zst is for
The cross-compiler is then used to build a Tcl/Tk bundle for R, which is
Tcl-aarch64-*-*.zip. Building Tcl/Tk required only a small
amount of changes to support LLVM 16, because otherwise it already had
support for aarch64.
However, building the libraries for Rtools43 required numerous changes, when the software wasn’t yet updated for Windows/aarch64. They were of similar nature to the changes needed for R itself, as follows.
Some hand-written assembly code optimized routines, when not available for aarch64 or when relying on GNU assembler, had to be disabled. Some autoconfig files had to be re-generated with new autoconf to support aarch64, which in turn needed sometimes further fixes in the projects. Some MXE build scripts had to be adapted not to assume Intel CPUs on Windows. Some compiler warnings and errors reported by the (stricter) C compiler had to be handled, mostly again re function prototypes and K&R notation. In some cases, upgrading the libraries helped to get code which supported aarch64, but then additional fixes were needed to make them work. Whenever possible and available, fixes for these libraries were re-used from Msys2.
The build of R and recommended packages was then done using Rtools, natively on Windows 11/aarch64, similarly as on Intel machines, using a toolchain+libraries tarball and a separate Msys2 installation.
Scripts for automating the build of Rtools and the Tcl/Tk bundle in docker containers used for Rtools43 were extended to support Windows/aarch64. The scripts and all the experimental changes to Rtools are available at the usual locations (toolchain+libraries, Tcl/Tk bundle).
The initial experiments were done using a compiler toolchain and libraries provided by Msys2. Only after it became clear the amount of changes needed was reasonable, Rtools have been built for aarch64, and the necessary changes cleaned up, tested using Rtools, and commited to R-devel, the development version of R.
How to experiment
R-devel can be built using MkRules.local consisting of
USE_LLVM = 1 WIN =
using Rtools full (or base) toolchain+libraries bundle and a Tcl/Tk bundle, both available here. R built this way will be automatically installing packages only from source.
At the time of writing, R built this way, including recommended packages, passes its tests.
On its own this would not be a sufficient test for the new flang, but CRAN packages are already being tested to work with flang on Linux by Brian Ripley, with promising results. Future testing on Windows, particularly after upgrading to a newer flang compiler as this one has known problems, should hopefully not reveal too many new problems.
Almost full Rtools have been built for aarch64, which should allow testing of most CRAN packages (but see the next section).
The code changes needed for base R and for software built as part of Rtools were not overwhelming and most of them were cleanups and modernization that the software would have to go through at some point, anyway.
I think there is a value in R being able to use also LLVM compilers on Windows, not necessarily only to support Windows on aarch64. Other constraints or uses may appear in the future with new platforms, interoperability with new languages or use of new tools. Supporting more than one compiler clearly helps to keep the code more portable.
The same applies to the R packages. Being portable and supporting multiple compilers, and LLVM specifically, even on Windows, is a good thing to do, regardless of whether Windows on aarch64 would become an important platform, and whether that would be soon, or not.
On testing packages
A significant source of pain when testing packages with a new toolchain or after a big change in the toolchain is when packages download pre-compiled code. Such code is not, and cannot possibly be, compatible: of course static libraries for Intel cannot be linked into executables or dynamic libraries for aarch64.
When this downloading is done by a package with a large number of reverse dependencies, it makes any testing of a new or significantly updated toolchain essentially impossible: most R packages cannot be built and tested. This is also one of the reasons why this practice is generally not allowed by the CRAN repository policy. See Howto: Building R-devel and packages on Windows for additional reasons why this practice is a really bad thing to do. To compare with Rtools itself, it does not have this problem: MXE packages are not downloading any pre-compiled code, so one can easily switch a toolchain and re-build from scratch.
During the transition from MSVCRT to UCRT on Windows, there was a similar problem and at that time libraries for almost all CRAN packages were created and added to Rtools42. To test them, over 100 CRAN and some Bioconductor packages were patched to use the libraries from Rtools, and these patches were automatically applied while testing. Unfortunately, a number of packages did not incorporate such patches and instead ended up downloading pre-compiled code (then for UCRT) again, repeating the previous problem, which we are now running into yet again.
It would be great help if CRAN packages still downloading pre-compiled code could be fixed not to do so. In some cases they might be able to find inspiration in older patches created during the UCRT transition, available here.
Additional information for dealing with external libraries on Windows is available in Howto: Building R-devel and packages on Windows, including hints on adding libraries to Rtools (packages to MXE).